Clinical, basic sciences and translational research opportunities abound throughout the radiation oncology residency program. During clinical training, residents are frequently offered opportunities to assume responsibility for research projects with their rotations’ attendings, many of which will culminate in posters, oral presentations, and peer-reviewed publications. The PGY-4 year of the residency program is a dedicated research year, with several weeks of call but no other scheduled clinical responsibilities. Residents are encouraged to identify research mentors during the PGY-2 and PGY-3 years in order to pursue research experiences of their interest during PGY-4. Those residents seeking a longer research experience may be eligible for participation in the American Board of Radiology Holman Research Pathway, which enables them to devote additional time exclusively to research responsibilities; many residents have successfully followed this pathway in recent years. The research projects that residents pursue span a wide variety of interests and have included basic science experiences, public health and epidemiology, survivorship and long-term radiation sequelae, and numerous disease-specific clinical projects.